The Ibogaine Dossier
NYU Conference on Ibogaine Nov 5-6, 1999
variety iboga fruit
Editor, The Ibogaine Dossier (retired)
Revised August 26, 2001
Howard S. Lotsof
Concern has been expressed regarding ibogaine neurotoxicity.
However, an intra-peritoneal dose of 40 mg/kg for 12 days, or
10 mg/kg for 30 days caused no significant pathologic findings
in rat heart, liver, kidneys, and brain. (Dhahir 1971)
No neurotoxicity was observed after 5-25 mg/kg ibogaine for 4
days per os in African green monkeys. (Sanchez-Ramos 1994)
While O'Hearn and Molliver describe that ibogaine and harmaline
have selective neurotoxic effects, leading to degeneration of
Purkinje cells in the cerebellar vermis, (O'Hearn 1993a,
1993b) Molinari et al. subsequently report that
ibogaine induced neurotoxicity is dose-dependent, not causing
pathological changes at therapeutic doses in the rat. (Molinari 1996)
Glick shows that 18-methoxy-coronaridine, a novel, synthetic iboga
alkaloid congener, mimics ibogaine's effects on drug self-administration
without evidence of cerebellar toxicity at a high dose (100 mg/kg).
(Glick 1996) Popik states that ibogaine exhibits
neuroprotective properties in cultures of cerebellar granule cell
neurons. (Popik 1995)
Further, to the matter of neurotoxicity, Helsley shows no significant
differences in Purkinje cell numbers between ibogaine and control groups
(Helsley 1997) while Xu in work jointly performed at the
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and the Division of Neurotoxicology,
National Center for Toxicological Research, an FDA laboratory showed no
neurotoxicity above controls at human therapeutic doses of 25 mg/kg of ibogaine
in the rat. (Xu 2000)
- Methods for the detection and determination
of ibogaine in biological materials. Dhahir, H.I.,
Jain, N.C. and Forney, R.B. J Forensic Sci 16:103-108, 1971.
- Ibogaine research update: phase I human study.
Sanchez-Ramos, J. and Mash,
D.C. Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies 4:11,
- Ibogaine induces glial activation in parasagittal
zones of the cerebellum. O'Hearn, E.,
Long, D.B. and Molliver, M.E. Neuroreport 4:299-302, 1993.
- Degeneration of Purkinje cells in parasagittal
zones of the cerebellar vermis after treatment with ibogaine or
harmaline. O'Hearn, E.
and Molliver, M.E. Neuroscience 55:303-310, 1993.
- Ibogaine neurotoxicity: a re-evaluation.
Molinari, H.H., Maisonneuve,
I.M. and Glick, S.D. Brain Res 737:255-262, 1996.
- 18 Methoxycoronaridine, a Nontoxic Iboga Alkaloid
Congener: Effects on Morphine and Cocaine Self Administration
and on Mesolimbic Dopamine Release in Rats. Glick, S.D.,
Kuehne, M.E., Maisonneuve, I.M., Bandarage, U.K. and Molinari,
H.H. Brain Res 719:29-35, 1996.
- NMDA Antagonist Properties of the Putative
Antiaddictive Drug, Ibogaine. Popik, P.,
Layer, R.T., Fossom, L.H., et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 275:753-760,
- Effects of Chronic Ibogaine Treatment on Cerebellar
Purkinje Cells in the Rat. Helsley,
S., Dlugos C.A., Pentney R.J., Rabin R.A., Winter J.C. Brain Reseach
- A Dose-Response Study of Ibogaine-Induced Neuropathology in
the Rat Cerelellum. Xu Z., Chang L.W.,
Slikker W. Jr., Ali S.F., Rountee R.L., Scallet A.C. Toxicol Sci
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